Discussion on the electrical design of residence

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Discussion on residential electrical design

Abstract: This paper will discuss the layout of electrical equipment inside the house and the selection of conductor switches; The setting of TV, door guard intercom system and other aspects are preliminarily discussed in order to make the designed residence more reasonable, meet people's needs to the greatest extent, meet the future residents' own transformation, and use it more safely and reliably

key words: calculated load power factor load analysis functional area security system protective grounding Untitled Document with the progress of society and the improvement of human living standards, the role of housing is becoming more and more important, and with the reform of China's housing system, housing transposition thinking will promote the whole as a commodity to the market. As a commodity residence, its quality and reasonable layout will directly affect the use of residents and the interests of developers. Therefore, the design of residence should attract the attention of designers. 2、 The determination of the calculated load in each house and the determination of the watt hour meter, the main switch and the incoming Conductor: "calculated load" is a hypothetical load for selecting electrical equipment according to the heating conditions. The thermal effect produced by "calculated load" is equal to the maximum thermal effect produced by the actual variable load. Because the time for the selected conductor to reach a stable temperature rise is 30 minutes, only the load value with a duration of more than 30 minutes can constitute the maximum temperature rise of the conductor. We set the maximum power demand in a year as pj1. According to historical data, the maximum power demand in a year generally occurs in July, August and September in summer. According to people's living habits, on the premise of meeting people's maximum convenience, the electrical equipment that may be used at the same time include: lamps... 200W, stereo... 300W, freezer... 200W, air conditioner... 1300W, refrigerator... 150W, microwave oven or rice cooker... 1000W, TV... 90W, water dispenser (desktop refrigeration)... 100W, range hood... 50W, washing machine... 200W, Other unknown equipment (positive deflection tensile coefficient D, we assume a "power factor")... 500W. According to the listed equipment capacity, the equipment capacity that can be used at the same time is 4090w. We can use the "load analysis method" to determine the residential demand coefficient: from the above analysis, we can know: pj1=4.09kw; Pe=17.35kw, so we can get: kx1=pj1/pe=4 "Nowadays, plastic building materials have made greater and greater contributions to the construction industry and urban construction. 09/17.35=0.2357, taking kx=0.24: pj=pexkx=17.35x0.24=4.164kw, taking pj=4.2kw. With the national promotion of energy conservation, people's awareness of energy conservation will be significantly enhanced. According to the current situation of people's living standards, this capacity will not be broken through in 10-15 years. Maybe a few households will occasionally have the switch tripping situation of excessive load when using it Which limits its overload. Although this will bring a little trouble to residents, on the whole, it is not necessary for us to improve the design standard of the whole residence in order to meet the occasional heavy load power consumption. Compared with it, it is obviously uneconomical. Therefore, we set the load as 4.2kW, which is a universal phenomenon and can meet the needs of most people. If you encounter excessive load occasionally, just cut off part of the electrical equipment, and this kind of situation is rare. For ordinary residents, three bedrooms can be used, and it is also a mainstream of today's housing. Although the area of four bedrooms and two bedrooms is different from that of three bedrooms, the difference in electrical equipment is not necessarily too large, so it is not one by one. It is all calculated by analogy. For senior apartments and villas, the capacity should be appropriately increased according to the situation, taking 6-10kw. We can see that the power factor of household appliances is 0.6-1, so we can set the total power factor to 0.8, and the calculated current is 23.86a. Therefore, the setting value of the main incoming switch can be set to 25A. According to the calculated current value and switch setting value, the incoming line can be selected as 3x (bv-500-1x6) and the watt hour meter as 10 (40) a. 3、 Division of residential branch circuits: previously, we discussed the calculated load of residential buildings and the specifications of watt hour meters, main switches and incoming lines. Next, we will discuss the situation of each branch circuit. At present, the electrical pipelines in the residence we designed include: lighting, sockets, air conditioning, television, and some also propose to set separate pipelines for the sockets in the kitchen and bathroom, so that a total of seven pipelines enter the room. Among these seven pipelines, except for the lighting which is laid on the roof, the other pipelines are laid in the ground cushion, and it is inevitable that they cross each other (the phenomenon of pipelines crossing each other in the ground cushion occurs repeatedly in the construction), And some pipelines (such as air conditioners) are often laid for a long distance, and the use of air conditioners is not too much every year. Especially in northern areas, heating is installed. Air conditioners can only be used in three months of summer, and the rest of the time are idle, which virtually causes waste. At the same time, the power consumption time of lighting in the room is the longest, but compared with other household appliances, its capacity is a smaller part, and with the development and promotion of energy-saving lamps, as long as we are a willing person, the load of lighting branches is getting smaller and smaller; At the same time, there is no protective grounding in the lighting circuit in the design that has been used for a long time (according to the regulations, only when the height of the lighting is less than 2.4 meters, the protective wire is added, but in the actual implementation, there are also many people who do not add the protective wire); Another point that must also attract our attention is that with the reform of the housing system, people will change their houses for a relatively long time. Some may live in a three bedroom house for more than ten years or even decades, so the decoration of the house is inevitable. Although we have arranged electrical equipment sockets according to the furniture layout provided by the architecture specialty in the design, a considerable part of them do not meet the use requirements of residents in actual use. Everyone has everyone's aesthetic outlook, and each household has its own set of plans for the layout of its own room, so it is necessary to carry out secondary decoration and transformation of its own house, which will inevitably lead to confusion of lines. Sometimes, where we do not design sockets, residents need them, and some of them are directly led to the sockets by the lamps on the top during the decoration process, so that the sockets have no grounding protection, causing hidden dangers of accidents, Moreover, in the decoration, some households need to install wall lamps to beautify their rooms, and some installation heights are less than 2.4 meters. Since the lighting circuit has no grounding protection, there are hidden dangers of accidents, so it is also necessary to add protective grounding wires in the lighting circuit. Now let's pay attention to each room

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